The global stance, in the current scenario of the pandemic, has imposed a substantial burden on healthcare practitioners. The ultimate aim of researchers and scientists worldwide is to fight the ongoing situation and discover significant vaccines which can reduce the mortality rate among society. As we know, the decisive way to overcome the ongoing situation is to immunize the population. Moreover, the existing circumstances infer that, if we need to prevent and control the spread of COVID-19, then immunization would play an imperative role.
Certainly, COVID-19 has imprudently created several challenges among young researchers, scientists, and healthcare practitioners around the globe [1,2,3,4]. To address the key challenges, the interdisciplinary research areas such as education, healthcare, industrial, stock market, food and beverage were examined to determine the factors i.e. socio, behavioral, economical parameters in the vaccine strategy which can directly or indirectly influence the study [2, 3]. Hence, the trial of studies was performed at varying stages which included the clinical trials, spatial parameters of the spread of disease, factors corresponding to disease patients, and others. To discuss the overall impact of studies conducted, the challenge is to disseminate the data and predict information from big databases [5, 6].
To address the vital issues of real-world data complexity, several adoptive technologies such as computer vision, Tele health was need of time and assistive technologies implemented such as visualization-based models to assist the need of the patients also several communication modules were implemented to assist with the work from home and support the overall population to best fit the current scenario . Also, we can say that to curb the spread of COVID 19, Machine learning (ML)and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are well-known techniques, which are deployed to discover hidden information from varied databases. The global network of clinicians, scientists, and healthcare practitioners are trying to accelerate the research programs while utilizing AI and ML to develop an effective and efficient COVID -19 vaccine that can benefit the human population among all age groups [8, 9]. Usually, ML and AI are evolved to develop a prediction-based tool or decision making, which can outline the future adverts of healthcare outcomes .
We can say that the healthcare organizations are explicitly searching for appropriate technology which can track the epidemiological synchronization or cofactors which can relate to pandemic spread [9, 10]. However, cofactors can easily studied with AI and ML which can set vulnerable benefits of diagnosis while measuring the effectiveness of the drug, spread of COVID 19, and detecting the co-vital features associated with the disease [11,12,13]. Further, we can say that AI and ML-based technology are the decision-making platforms which can assist healthcare practitioners to fight the battle of COVID -19 while giving a recommendation, medical features extractions, patient-assisted control, and other services which we can think of.
Further, the utilization of ML and AI has flourished their advances in the pandemic era, victoriously in several application domains which include military organizations, healthcare, business analytics, and other technological intervention while gaining momentum and success stories [11,12,13]. For example, the chest CT scan images were applied with medical imaging analysis using ML and AI-based algorithms to detect the prognosis of the disease in a short period, as well as citing the drug discovery module which can benefit the patient [14, 15]. In addition, ML and AI-based studies were applied to study the societal and behavioral implications of patients and develop intelligent models which can benefit the post-Covid era of patients . Moreover, several human transmission models were also generated to identify and predict the outbreak of disease and other severities aligned with spread [16, 17].
Further, considering the relative global impact of vaccination with vital features such as literacy rate, disabilities, older generation and many other factors in retrospect of the citizens and certain formulation suggested that users those have lower trust in their government were less inclined towards vaccination programs . In accordance, to the previous work we tried to determine the vaccination trends among varied nations under authoritarian rule as well as comparison was strategized against democratic nations [17, 18]. The comparison of trends showed that dissemination of the SARS-Cov-2 vaccine had been comparable between the two-opposing types of governance. Further, the study was proposed with relevance and impacting factor that was considered for vaccine dissemination in comparison with the literacy rate of the nations. The correlated factor was referred to as the country’s literacy rate, which is an indicator of its economy and living standards . In agreement with the above problem, the vaccination trends were represented, with vital features of lesser literacy rates having extremely low and flat growth curves for vaccination numbers . In similar, another impacting factor that the study focused on was the vaccination dissemination trends in comparison with the health expenses of different nations. The curves were strong indicators that the nations that spend more on healthcare were the ones that had the best SARS-Cov-2 vaccination rollout . These nations used a large number of vaccines to administer to their population and the trends were positive growth . While the nations with the lowest healthcare expenses failed to keep up with the demand and depended on vaccines donated by other countries to protect their population .
In the proposed study, we aim to reveal the impact of political and socio-economic factors on SARS-Cov-2 vaccination trends in different countries. The study has been synthesized on political and socio-economic factors where the features were ardently study in retrospect of varied socio- economic features which may include country wise literacy rate, overall GDP rate, further we substantiated the work to address the political factors which are discussed as the country status of democratic or having other status which are discussed elaborated in methodology section.
Data science can be discussed as a vibrant tool for developing and supporting vaccine dissemination. The major role is to discover the protein structure which can enable the clinicians and data scientists to discover the patterns for future research repositories and identification of drug discovery. We can say that vaccine is the only possibility that can control the dissemination of COVID 19 cases around the globe . However, the statistics represents that few vaccines have received permission to use, as in case of emergency conditions that can benefit the healthcare practitioners and others. In context, several vaccination programs are laid into the process to assure the wellbeing, safety, and control of the blowout of the COVID-19 [18,19,20]. Hence, we can say that earlier vaccine development was a trivial task, but the advent technology introduced has the ability to identify the protein structure and develop a new drug for a deeper understanding of the virus. Google with integrated technology of AI launched the Alphafold tool, which tends to be an automatic and specialized tool that can predict the new vital 3D protein structure while input as the genetic sequence . The above cited approached focused on detection of the untreated proteins which regulate the SARS-COV-2 virus and generate a protein structure [17, 22].
The concept of reverse vaccinology (RV) with ML tools was utilized to forecast and develop a vaccine for COVID -19. The RV was applied to discover the pathogen using genomes. The study prevailed to discover the proteins which were responsible for the virus which includes SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, HCoV-229E, and others where were discovered from Uniprot proteins. Moreover, they have exploited the ML techniques Vaxign-ML to detect and discover the signal behavior of the proteome of the virus, to forecast the relevance of biological signals . Further, the Vaxign-ML model was formulated using classifier Random Forest, structural and vector proximity, the context of modeling which was based on ML and RC, was applied to determine the protein and its correspondence level .
In similar, the control and spread of any communicable disease depend upon the vaccine instantiated. Certainly, the development of these vaccines is not an easy task, moreover, several challenges and barriers exist to determine the effective and efficient drug which can handle the generic data. In the past several studies are introduced by researchers and health care practitioners to study the overall effect of the vaccine [17,18,19,20,21,22]. Comparably, a study was proposed to discuss the encounters of the vaccine in context with structural and attitudinal patterns in the US population [24, 25]. Where the structural barriers were discussed as the service which was not accessible such as transportation services, or going out and acquiring public services. Further, attitudinal barriers refer to the fact the beliefs which a person acquires the fear of communicable disease or his unwillingness to accept the facts due to perception of the mind. Moreover, in the context of vaccination, it may be discussed as the barrier which develops as the aftermaths or present vaccination programs and determines the risks associated with same. Similar outcomes can be controlled by several recommendation programs, where the effectiveness and importance of COVID- 19 can help them reduce the barriers among the population, which an individual acquires due to rational information [24, 25].